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Extra resources for 36 Modeles Pour Une Maison
Aid agencies are increasingly questioning urban land policies based exclusively on access to individual ownership. The World Bank itself is now tending to focus less on freehold and instead pay more attention to security of tenure issues: The issues of involuntary resettlement have become more intense in many cities as population pressure and land market rigidities are provoking further encroachment on environmentally vulnerable lands and rights of way. Fair and sustainable resettlement programmes need to be designed with due regard to citywide land market policies and conditions, not as neighbourhood enclave activities, since displaced households will often return to squatter status elsewhere.
Predominantly greenfield in nature, the majority of projects result in the provision of individual ownership. The impact of the promising ‘People’s Housing Process’, which promotes a people-driven approach to informal settlement upgrading, remains to be seen. Brazil is characterized by the absence of any effective housing policy intervention to speak of until the mid-1980s. It is the actions taken by urban poor communities and some municipalities, with the support, in some cases, of NGOs and churches, that have had the largest impact on the options people have for access to land and housing.
Human and financial resource capacity constraints impact fundamentally on the realization of decentralization objectives. The role of community-based organizations (CBOs), including partnerships with informal actors Civil society mobilization in India in the 1980s, through the national campaign for housing rights, was instrumental in creating a political lobby for inclusive 28 Holding Their Ground policy-making processes. NGOs, CBOs, trade unions, grass-roots movements and lawyers and professionals in the housing and urban development sector participated in consultations and awareness campaigns all over the country.