By Narain Gehani, H. V. Jagadish, O. Shmueli (auth.), Nabil R. Adam, Bharat K. Bhargava (eds.)
Database administration is attracting large curiosity in either educational and commercial contexts. New software components reminiscent of CAD/CAM, geographic details structures, and multimedia are rising. the desires of those software parts are way more complicated than these of traditional enterprise functions. the aim of this booklet is to collect a collection of present study concerns that addresses a wide spectrum of themes on the topic of database structures and functions. The publication is split into 4 elements: - object-oriented databases, - temporal/historical database structures, - question processing in database structures, - heterogeneity, interoperability, open process architectures, multimedia database systems.
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Extra info for Advanced Database Systems
2 Object Updates and Secure Garbage Collection Mechanisms Under the approach described in the previous subsection, updates do not pose any obstacles to security. If an object o is part of some composite object, any updates to the attributes of o are directly visible to the composite object. By contrast, the delete problem is more difficult to deal with. There are basically two ways in which the delete operations have been implemented in various OODBMSs: systems allowing users to perform explicit delete operations (like ORION , and Iris ), and systems using a garbage collection mechanism to remove objects that are no longer reachable from other objects (like GemStone  and 02 ).
Access control Derivation of authorization is used in the access control as follows. Given a request of a subject to exercise an access mode on an object the strong authorizations are examined. If there exist a strong authorization, either explicit or implicit, which authorizes, or denies, the access, then the access is authorized, or denied, respectively. If there does not exist any strong authorization for the access, the weak authorizations are examined, and the access is either granted or denied based of the outcome.
T h e basic idea of the approach is that information flow control can be achieved by mediating the flow of messages among objects. Indeed, in object-oriented systems all information flows are through message exchanges. This approach is very simple, in t h a t it requires the security mechanism to deal only with two elements: objects and messages. It is based on two basic principles governing message exchanges among objects in the system 1. if the sender of the message is at a strictly higher level than the receiver's level, the m e t h o d is executed by the receiver in restricted m o d e (that is, no updates can be performed) 2.