By Wolfgang Demtröder
This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been constructed over the last centuries by way of many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical facet via the advent of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.
It illustrates the wave version of debris by means of many examples and indicates the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its capability for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as sleek spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.
Many examples and issues of suggestions may still set off the reader to an severe energetic cooperation.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics
Plucker (1801– 1868), Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824–1914), Joseph John Thomson (1856–1940), Phillip Lenard (1862– 1947) (Nobel Prize 1905), and many others have all contributed much to our understanding of the electric structure of atoms. It is worthwhile to note that the essential experimental progress was only possible after the improvement of vacuum technology (the invention of the mercury diffusion pump, for example, allowed one to generate vacua down to 10−6 hPa). In a gas discharge tube at low pressures, Hittorf observed particle rays emitted from the cathode that followed (without external ﬁelds) straight lines, which he could prove by the shadow that was produced on a ﬂuorescent screen when obstacles were put in the path of the cathode rays.
Electron impact ionization in gas discharges represents the major contribution to the generation of charge carriers. 68c) the relative kinetic energy E kin of the collision partners must be much higher than the ionization energy E ion of the electron, because only a small fraction (≈ m e /m B ) of the kinetic energy of the heavy particle B can be transferred during the collision to the electron of atom A which has to be removed from the atom. b) Photoionization of Atoms − − e− + A ⇒ A + + 2e− Fig.
The necessary energy to release an electron) is minimum. These spots are imaged by the electrons on the spherical anode (ra- Sample Magnetic objective lens Imaging lens Fluorescence screen Fig. 23. 3. Can One See Atoms? a sharp kink (hair needle cathode) and are accelerated by a high voltage (up to 500 kV). With specially formed electric or magnetic ﬁelds, serving as electron optics (see Sect. 6) the electrons are imaged onto the samV1 V0 Field emission ple, which is prepared as a thin foil (Fig.